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Konke okumele ukwazi nge spiro compounds

Konke okumele ukwazi nge spiro compounds

Isingeniso kwiimveliso zeSpiro

I-spiro ihlanganisi yinkomfa yendalo apho amabini amabhayisiki e-bicyclic anamathele nge-atom enye. Ngokwemvelo, izakhiwo zamasongo zinokuba zifana kunye okanye zihluke, kwaye i-athomu edibanisa iicandi zombini kuthiwa i-spiroatom (i-atom ye-spiral), ngokuqhelekileyo I-grade 4 carbon (eyaziwa ngokuba yi-carbon carbon), kwaye inokuthi Kwakhona i-silicon, i-phosphorus, okanye i-arsenic. Hisque hisque hisqueque hisqueque hisquequequequequequequequequequeque produitsque produitsque his hisquequeque his hisquequequequequequequequequequeque hisque his hisque hisquequequequequeque hisquequequequeque hisqueque hisquequeque hisqueque Ikhampani ye-spiro iya kusebenzisa abazali ukuba babhale inani lamacenge ngokwahlukileyo. Inombolo yendidi iqulethe i-atro ye-spiro ngokwayo, kwaye inani elincinci liya kuba phambi kwenani kwaye lihlukaniswe yicatshulwa.

Ubuncinane amabhonkco amabini kwi-molecule athatha i-athomu ye-carboni (kwezinye iifom, ezinye i-athomu, ezifana ne-silicon, i-phosphorus, i-arsenic, njl.). Amakhonkco amabini afumaneke kwiiplani ezimbini eziphambene nomnye nomnye: ama-spiro amaqumrhu afanelekileyo afakwe kwi-chiral kwaye anokusombulula kwiisomers ezibonakalayo (jonga isomerism ebonakalayo). Ngokwefomu, inqobo ye-H2C = C = i-CH2 yincinci ye-spiro elula, kwaye inzuzo echanekileyo ye-acid efana ne-1,3-propadienediic acid iyasebenza kwaye iyakwazi ukwahlukana ngama-isom. umzimba.

I-Classificatio

(1) Ngokombolo yee-atro ze-spiro, i-spiro isakhi sinokufakwa kwisigaba esinye se-spiro, i-dispiro, i-spiro yesithathu, kunye ne-multi-spiral spiral eneendidi ezininzi ze-atrosi ze-spiro.

(2) I-carbocyclic i-spiro i-composite kunye ne-heterocyclic component spiro ingahlelwa ngohlobo lwe-atom ekufuneka iqulethwe kuyo, kwaye xa i-athomu yekhabhoni eyenza i-carbocyclic i-spiro isakhi ishintshwe enye i-athomu, i-heteroocyclic spiro compound.

(3) Ngokwehlobo lomncinci, lunokuhlulwa kwiindawo ezizalisekile, ezingenasiswanga, ezimnandi kunye ne-aliphatic spiro.

(4) Ulungelelaniso lwe-heterospirocyclic compounds. I-atro ye-spiro kwisakhi se-spiro ingaba i-athomu ye-khabhoni okanye ezinye izinto ezifana ne-Si, N, P, Ge kunye nokunye. Ukuba i-atro ye-spiro iyinto ye-atom yensimbi, i-bond edibeneyo ibunjwa ngokubanzi, kwaye i-composites e-spiro ibhekiselwa kuyo njengombumba we-heterocyclic.

I-polymeric compiro

I-polymeric i-spiro idibanisi yintsebenziswano yeebhanki ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu kwee-atro njengezandi ezintathu okanye ngaphezulu. Xa ubiza igama le-spiro, isichazi sombolo esongeza i-di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., njl. Njll egameni lithetha i-atri ye-spiro ekhoyo phakathi kwamacangci. Ama-athomu kwisixhobo se-spiro sele ehleliwe ngokuchanekileyo. Isigama sesiqulatho sepolyspirocyclic siqala nge-molecule ejikelezayo edibanisa i-atro ye-spiro, ebizwa ngokuba yi-terminal ring. Ezi iamolekyuli ze-polyspirocyclic zingaba namathanga amabini okanye ngaphezulu kwaye ziqhotyoshelwe kwi-multi-spirocyclic compound. Hisque hisquequeque his hisqueque his hisqueque his his hisque followingquequequequequequequequequeque his hisque produitsque hisque his hisquequequequequequequequequequequequequequequequequequequeque hisquequequequequequequequequequequequeque I-nomenclature kumgca wokugcina iqaliswe yi-athomu ecaleni kwe-atro ye-spiro, ebhalwe njengenombolo 1, kwaye i-molecule ibalwa ngokuqala nge-molecule.

Amanqongo amabini okanye ngaphezulu, isamba sokuqala sesithintelo sokugcina siya kuba nelinye indlela yokukhetha. Xa i-spiroatom yokuqala ibalwa, i-spiro compounds elandelayo kufuneka ixhunywe kumncinci omncinci. Ukubala. Masithi kukho i-compound eneendandatho ezimbini zokugcina, enye i-athomu ye-6 enye enye i-athomu ye-8. Ukubalwa kwenani kuqaliswe ngendandatho yee-athomu ze-6, kuba emva kokubala, i-spiroatom iya kubalwa i-6. Ukuba iqhosha elibandakanya ii-atom ze-8 liqala, i-spiroatom iya kubalwa i-8. Ulwalathiso lwenani lugqitywa ngu-spiroatom (ukuqala kwi-spiroatom yokuqala yesalathisi esele idibene). Cinga ukuba i-athomu yenkohlakalo iqala ukubala kwinxalenye enye, kwaye ukuba inombolo ingaphantsi kwenani kwelinye icala, i-atom ye-konnail iyakhethwa. Isikhokelo nenani elincinci lisetyenziselwa ukuqalisa igama. Kwi-atom ejikelezayo elandelayo, ubungakanani benani leenombolo abubalulekanga. Kwezinye iimeko, ezimbini zokuqala, ezintathu, ezine okanye ezine-spiroatoms ziya kulungiswa kwinani elifanayo kungakhathaliseki ukuba ziphi na izikhokelo ezibalwayo. Ukukhethwa kwesikhokelo sokubala kukhethwe yinkqubo yokubala xa kunombolo eyahlukeneyo yee-athomu ezihlaziyiweyo, kwaye isalathiso se-atom ezijikelezayo ezibhalwe phantsi. Umzekelo, ukuba inkqubo yokubala kwinqanaba elilodwa, inani le-spiroatom ngalinye li-3, 5, 7, 10, kunye nenani le-spiroatoms kwelinye icala yi-3, 5, 7, 9, ngoko ulawulo lwesibini kukhethwe. . Kule meko, kwinqanaba lenombolo yokuqala, inani phakathi kwee-atom ezimbini ze-atom ku-7 kunye ne-10, kwaye kwinqanaba elingaphambeneyo, 7 kunye ne-9. Ukubalwa kweyiphi i-athomu yesiqalo emva koko akubalulekanga, kwaye isalathisi sokubala sinqunywe sisikhokelo senombolo 9.

Ngokuthiwa ngegama elincinci lamasongo, inamba yokuqala kubazali babazali ibonisa ukuba i-athomu kwikota yokuqala ekufutshane ne-atro spiro yinombolo. Amanani asele amelela inani lee-athomu phakathi kwee-atro ze-spiro, okanye i-athomu kwisigxina sokuphela. Inombolo nganye ihlukaniswe ngexesha (isiNgesi). Kulo mzekelo, kukho ii-athomu ezimbini (ezibalwa nge-1 kunye ne-2) phambi kwe-spiroatom yokuqala (3). Akukho zi i-athomu phakathi kwe-3 kunye ne-4 spiroatoms, kwaye kunjalo kunjalo ne-spiroatoms kwi-4 kunye ne-5, i-5 ne-6. Kukho ii-atom ezimbini kwi-ring ring, 6 kunye ne5, 5 kunye ne-4, kwaye kukho enye phakathi kwe-4 ne-3.

Hisqueque hisqueque his hisque hisque hisque hisque hisquequequeque hisquequequequequequeque his hisquequeque followingquequequeque his hisque following his his his hisque hisque hisquequeque hisquequequequequequequequeque produitsqueque hisquequeque hisque Kulo mzekelo ngakwesokudla, kukho ezimbini i-spiroatoms, ngoko igama elithi dispiro liqala. Kwisalathisi sokuqala, kukho iibhile ezimbini, ezibonisa igama dispiro [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1. Okulandelayo, kukho i-athomu enye kunye neyesine kwelinye isithintelo sokugcina phakathi kwee-spiroatoms, ebonisa igama leenkibili [2 2.1.3. I-spiroatom yesibili, ebizwa nge-5, ifakwe njengendlela eya kuhlangana nenani lee-atom emva kwenani lee-atom kwisigxina sokuphela, ngexesha lokugqibela elongeze i-5 kunye ne-athomu ze-9 phakathi kwe-10 kunye ne-3 spiroatoms Yongeza ke i-alkane Inombolo efanayo yee-atom ze-spiro, i-decane, igamaispiro [5 2.1.3 .5 2] imbonakalo ebonakaliswe ngulo gama.

Inkcazo epheleleyo ye-spiro compounds
I-monospirocyclic isakhi sinquma igama lomzali we-hydrocarbon ngokwe-totali yenani lee-athomu ze-khabhoni ezibandakanyeka ekubunjweni kwemida; zonke i-athomu kwi-ring ye-spiro zibalwa ngokulandelelana kwendandatho encinci kunye neendandatho ezinkulu kwaye i-atro spiro iyancishiswa; ngoko zilandelwa ngamabakaki. Ukulandelelana kwenani le-ring epheleleyo kuboniswa ngenani leeatoni zeekhabhoni ezixutywe phakathi kwee-atro ze-spiro, kunye nephambi kwegama le-hydrocarbon ye-chain ehambelana nomphetho wonke; amanani ahlukaniswe ngecandelo eliphantsi, kwifom: inkohlakalo [a, b] i-alkane.

I-Hybrid screw

Umphumo we-anomeric we-ring ye-heterospiral ithetha ukuba ii-atom ezimbini ezinokuthi zi-electron-positive okanye iimbini zombini zee-electron kwi-conformation zikhokelela ekunciphiseni umzuzu we-dipole we-molecule kwaye unciphise amandla e-intramolecular. Kwi-1968, iqela lophando lwe-Descotes kuqala licebise umphumo we-anomeric. Xa bafunda i-acetal bicyclic, bafumanisa ukuba ezi zimbini zisezantsi ziqulethe i-57% yomsombisi we-cis kunye ne-43% ye-trans isomer kumxube we-equilibri kwi-80. Ukwahluka kwamandla ka0.71 kJ / mol. Ngenxa yempembelelo ye-anomeric yomsomzi we-cis, isiqalo se-trans sinefuthe elinjalo.

Ukuziphatha

Ezinye iinkoksi zineenkomo zinexilongo. I-Spiroatoms ingaba ngamaziko e-chiral, nangona xa bengenalo iindawo ezizahlukileyo ezine ezifunekayo ukuze zigcine izilwanyana. Xa amabhonkco amabini afana, inkqubo ye-CIP inikezela phambili phambili ukwandisa ukongezwa kwesandi esinye kunye nesinye isangqa esingaphantsi. Ingasetyenziswa xa isalathisi ayifani.

Iimveliso ze-cyclic zingahlulwa yizinto ezilandelayo:

• Inkqubo yeAlicyclic

Le ngqungquthela yezinto eziphilayo ezinomgangatho we-aliphatic kunye ne-cyclic compound. Iqulethe enye okanye ngaphezulu okanye i-carbocyclic isine egciniweyo, kodwa amacenge awanamakha.

• uNafthenic

Ngokomlinganiselo wendandatho, i-naphthenes ingabalwa ibe yincinci, ephakathi kunye enkulu. Hisque his followingquequequequequequequeque hisqueque hisquequequequequequequequequeque produitsqueque produits produits hisqueque produitsqueque produitsque produitsquequeque followingque hisque produitsque his followingquequequequequequequequequeque hisqueque followingque hisque produitsquequeque I-cyclopentane eqhelekileyo, i-cyclohexane, i-cycloheptane, kunye ne-cyclooctane ukuya kwi-cyclotridecane ziphakathi, kwaye zikhulu zibhekwa njenge-naphthenes enkulu.

Cycloolefin

Le yile i-hydrocarbon ehamba nge-cyclic ine-intra-carbon carbon-carbon kabini. I-monoolefins yama-cyclic elula iquka i-cyclopropene, i-cyclobutene, i-cyclopentene kunye ne-cyclohexene, ngelixa iipolitiki zino-cycpropadiene, i-cyclobutadiene, i-cyclopentadiene. Yima. Ezinye i-olefini ezihamba nge-cyclic, ezifana ne-cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, zinokubunjwa njenge-monomers ukwenza i-polymers.

• I-hydrocarbon emnandi

I-hydrocarboni elula kunye neyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu yi-benzene kunye nama-homologists afana ne-toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene kunye nezinye. Ngama-aromatics, ezinye iindandatho ezicocekileyo azikho izakhi ze-benzene ngokupheleleyo, kodwa i-athomu ze-khabhoni kuzo zithatyathwa yi-nitrogen, i-oxygen, isulfure nezinye izinto. Sibabiza ngokuba ngama-heterocycle, njengama-yuan amahlanu anjenge-furan. Isangqa siquka i-atom ye-oksijini kwaye i-pyrrole iqukethe i-athomu ye-nitrogen. I-tiophene iqukethe i-athomu yesulfure kunye nezinye.

Futhi i-aromatics iyakwazi ukwahlula:

• I-hydrocarbon emnandi ye-monocyclic
• I-Polycyclic i-hydrocarbon enamakha
I-hydrocarboni ephosakeleyo eneenkalo zeetyunithi zibizwa ngokuba yi-aliphatic arenes, kunye ne-hydrocarboni e-aliphatic eziqhelekileyo zi-toluene, i-ethylbenzene, i-styrene kunye nezinye.
• I-Heterocyclic compound

Iqukethe isangqa elimnandi elingenalo isondo ye-heterocyclic okanye i-substituent. Uninzi lwazo luyaziwa okanye luyakwazi ukubulala i-carcinogens. Eyona nto elula yile khemikhali i-naphthalene, eneendandatho ezimbini ezimnandi, kunye ne-tricyclic compounds i-ruthenium ne-phenanthrene.

I-Polycyclic i-hydrocarboni ephosakeleyo ayikho hlangothi, i-molecules engekho-polar efunyenwe ngamalahle kunye neendlwana. Kwakhona izinto ezinobungozi ezingaphelelanga (umz., Injini kunye ne-incinerator, xa ihlathi livutha kwi-biomass, etc.). Ngokomzekelo, iveliswa ngumlilo ongapheliyo wamafutha e-carbonaceous ezifana neenkuni, iinkuni zokhuni, igrisi kunye nocuba. Kwakhona kufumaneka kwenyama enomdla.

Iipolycyclic iziqhamo ezinamakha angaphezu kwamacangci amathathu zinobunzima obuphantsi kunye noxinzelelo oluphantsi lwe-vapor emanzini. Xa isisindo somzimba sikhula, zombini ukunyanzeliswa kunye noxinzelelo lwe-vapor kuyancipha. Iicyccylic polycyclic i-compounds aromatic ine-solubility ephantsi kunye noxinzelelo lwe-vapor. I-polycyclic i-compounds aromatic yinto efumaneka ngokubanzi emhlabathini nakwiindawo ezidlulayo kunamanzi nomoya. Nangona kunjalo, i-polycyclic i-compounds aromatic iyafumaneka rhoqo kwiincinci ezinqanyuliweyo emoyeni.

Uninzi lwe-polycyclic aromatic compounds ziye zachazwa njenge-carcinogens. Iingxelo zetyala lezonyango zibonisa ukuba ukutyhila kwexesha elide kwiziphumo eziphezulu ze-polycyclic i-compounds aromatic kungabangela umdlavuza wesikhumba, umdlavuza wamaphaphu, umdlavuza wesisu kunye nomhlaza wesibindi. Iipolycyclic iindidi ezinamakha zinokutshabalalisa izinto ezibonakalayo emzimbeni, zibangela ukukhula komhlaza weeseli kunye nokwandisa iziganeko zomhlaza.

Xa i-molecular weight is increased, i-carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic compound nayo yanda, kwaye i-toxicity ephezulu iyancipha. I-polycyclic compound, i-Benzo [a] pyrene (i-Benzo [a] pyrene), yayiyiyokuqala ye-carcinogen ye-chemical.

isicelo

Ipolisi yokwandisa

I-shrinkage yevolumu ye-polym ngexesha lokupompoza okanye ukuqiniswa kubangelwa yimandla e-van der Waals phakathi kwama-mole molecule kummandla wamanzi okanye i-molecule emide engapheliyo, kwaye umgama phakathi kwama-molecule ukhulu; emva kokupompoza okanye ukunqumla, ukuhamba kwee-Covalent bhondi phakathi kweeyunithi zezakhiwo kubangelwa ukuguqulwa komthamo we-polymer. Kukhankanywe ukuba ama-shrinkage maxa wambi ayingozi kwi-polym, njengokubangela ukuguga ngokukhawuleza kwipolymer, ukuchithwa, nokunciphisa ukusebenza jikelele. Ukuze kuxazululwe ingxaki ye-shrinkage ye-polymer yokuphilisa, amakhemikhali ayenze imizamo engapheliyo, kodwa ngokubanzi inokunciphisa kwaye ayikwazi ukuphelisa ngokupheleleyo ukukhutshwa kwevolumu. Kuze kube 1972, Bailey et al. phuhlise uluhlu lwe-spiro compounds kwaye lufumanisa ukuba ezi zixhobo zenziwe nge polymerized. Xa umthamo ungapheli, uyanda. Ukufunyanwa kwamanqaku athile kuye kwandula umdla wabaseninzi abaninzi, kwaye uphando oluninzi lwenziwe. Iimonomzi ezandisiweyo ziye zaba zixhobo eziphambili zepolymer ezisetyenziswayo. Iimveliso ezicwangcisiweyo ezifana ne-spiro orthoester kunye ne-spiro orthocarbonate zi-monomers ezandisiweyo kwaye ziye zasetyenziswa ekulungiseleleni izakhi eziphezulu zamandla, izibophelelo zokusebenza eziphezulu, izixhobo ze-polymer eziphathekayo kunye nezixhobo ze-polymer zonyango. Ukuguqulwa kwee-polymers zenjongo jikelele kunye nokuhlanganiswa kwama-oligomers anamaqela asebenzayo.

Electroluminescence

Ingaba okanye ingekho isakhi se-organic esikhipha ukukhanya kunye nobuninzi bomda wokukhanya okukhanyayo kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kokuphuma kokukhanya kuxhomekeka ngokukodwa kwi-chemical structure. I-Fluorescence isebenza ngama-molecule kunye neenqwelo eziqinileyo kunye neenkqubo ezidibeneyo, ezenza ngcono i-electron conjugation effect kunye ne-coplanarity of molecules, enenzuzo ekuphuculeni ukusebenza kakuhle kwe-fluorescence. Kukho izinto ezininzi zokukhanya ezikhanyayo. Iintlobo eziphambili: i-spiro ring, i-poly-p-phenylene vinylene, i-polythiophene, i-polythiadiazole kunye ne-metal coordination compounds. Phakathi kwabo, i-spirocyclic i-compounds aromatic ineenkqubo ezinkulu ezidibeneyo kunye nokulungeleka kakuhle kunye ne-coplanarity, ukushisa kweglasi ephezulu kunye nokuzinza okuphezulu. I-EL isebenzayo kwaye ayifuneki izixhobo eziyinkimbinkimbi, ngoko kunokwenzeka ukunciphisa iindleko zokuvelisa ngeli xesha kwaye kulula ukulungiselela izixhobo ezinkulu.

pesticide

I-ring fused kunye ne-spiro isakhi ene-hetero i-athomu akulula ukuvelisa ukungqinanga ngenxa yeendlela zabo ezizodwa, kwaye baye bafumana ingqwalasela enkulu ekuphuhlisweni kwee-pesticides. Umzekelo: Rudi et al. I-3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] i-3,9-dioxide kunye ne-sulfide I-Hydrogen yaphendulwa ukuze ivelise i-novel spiro, i-3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] zichaze. Iziphumo ezivela kuyo yiklasi elitsha le-insecopide ye-organophosphate kunye ne-herbicides, enokuthi isuse isardadi, i-ragweed, njl njl njl njl. Ngqolowa, okusanhlamvu, i-cotton kunye ne-soybean.